What Is a Domain Name? A Beginner-Friendly Guide
Choosing a domain name is one of the most important aspects of building a website or an online presence in general.
A domain name is a unique address for a website. Usually, it consists of a website name and a domain name extension. A memorable domain will strengthen your branding and help your audience find your website.
This beginner-friendly guide will explain everything you need to know about domain names, including how they work and why you need one. We will also explain the steps to get domain names and answer some frequently asked questions.
What Is a Domain Name?
A domain name is your website’s equivalent of a physical address. It helps users find your site easily instead of using its internet protocol (IP) address. Domain names consisting of a name and an extension are a key part of the internet infrastructure.
Video Tutorial on What Is a Domain Name
If you prefer watching a video, check out this YouTube tutorial explaining a domain name.
Differences Between Domain Names and URLs
While a domain name and a Universal Resource Locator (URL) share some similarities, they are different. It acts as a complete web address that can direct visitors to a specific page on a site. A domain name is just a part of it.
Also, it consists of a protocol, domain, and path. The protocol shows whether a site has an SSL certificate. Note that URLs have a path only when they direct visitors to a specific page on a site.
There’s also the fully qualified domain name (FQDN). This refers to the complete version of a domain name that also consists of the hostname.
How Do Domains Work?
Every website has two main elements – a domain name and a web hosting server. All domain names are linked to their respective IP addresses and point to the specific web servers that host the websites.
When a user enters a domain name into a browser, it looks for the associated IP address through a global network of Domain Name System (DNS) servers.
Next, the server with the information about the IP address returns it to the web browser, which requests data about the site from the domain’s hosting service. This web server stores all of the website’s data, including its files, database, and HTML code.
Once the host has sent the data back, the web browser converts it into a web page that users can visit.
Why Do I Need a Domain Name?
Here are some of the reasons why you need a domain name for your business or project:
- Memorability. Your audience can technically visit your website without a domain name by entering its IP address. However, since it consists of a string of numbers, it is difficult to remember. Domain names help a website be more accessible to internet users.
- Effective branding. A well-thought-out domain name will help communicate your project or business in a way that aligns with your brand’s values and mission.
- Credibility. Websites that use custom domain names are more professional-looking than those with a free domain name, like yourwebsite.websitebuilder.com.
- Custom email addresses. Having a domain name lets you create unique and professional business email accounts, like firstname.lastname@example.org. It also makes your presentation consistent throughout different online channels.
- SEO. A memorable domain name with relevant keywords will positively impact your website’s search engine optimization, improving its rankings on search engines.
Different Types of Domains
Different types of domain names can reveal more information about a website. Here are some of the most common types:
TLD: Top-Level Domain
A top-level domain is a domain extension. Various TLDs are available online, but .com domains are the most popular, with over 54% of all websites using them. A popular extension drives high organic traffic as users often write it by default. Other popular choices are .net, .io, and .store TLD.
However, a less popular extension, such as .online, is often less expensive and can make a domain more unique. Other examples of cheap domains include .tech, .site, and .shop. With the increasing number of new websites created daily, the popularity of a specific top-level domain might also change in the future.
Check out the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for the official list of all legitimate TLDs.
ccTLD: Country-Code Top-Level Domain
A country-code top-level domain is an extension specific to a particular country. It consists of two letters based on the international country codes.
Some platforms help find the correct country codes, such as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)’s database. To illustrate, sites from Japan use .jp as their extensions, whereas .us domains are mostly registered for the US-based websites and so on.
A ccTLD is useful for a company that focuses on a specific country. This way, international companies can differentiate their content for different regions.
For example, the BBC uses bbc.co.uk as their UK domain and targets the locals and bbc.com for the international audience.
gTLD: Generic Top-Level Domain
A generic top-level domain is an extension that does not rely on a country code. There are no specific criteria to obtain a gTLD. However, some extensions are sponsored by designated agencies or organizations. Nevertheless, you need to be careful not to confuse your visitors, as some domains have certain associations. For instance, .org extension is associated with the sites of organizations.
Some generic TLDs are reserved for specific types of registrants. For example, an academic institution can use .edu, and a governmental agency can use .gov. If your company or project does not belong to a particular category, you will not be able to use the generic TLDs associated with it, but you can use popular extensions instead, such as .com or its first alternative .net domain, .xyz, or .icu.
Other Domain Name Types
We focused on the different extension types above. The following are the other available structures of domain names:
A second-level domain (SLD) is below TLDs in the domain name hierarchy. An SLD is the section of a domain name located to the left of the last dot. Take www.hostinger.com, for example – hostinger is the SLD, and .com is the TLD.
Some domain name registries use a second-level domain to indicate a specific entity registering. For example, academic institutions in the United Kingdom mostly register websites under .ac.uk.
A subdomain indicates a separate division from a parent domain that still shares the same servers. There is no need to register a subdomain. Technically, the www of most URLs is a subdomain that shows that a site is part of the world wide web.
The most common reason to create subdomains is to organize and divide web content into separate sections. For example, Google uses developers.google.com to provide specific information for developers.
Another use of a subdomain is to create another website with the same name but in different languages. Take Wikipedia as an example – it has a separate subdomain for each language. It uses en.wikipedia.org for the English version and es.wikipedia.org for the Spanish one.
Website builders, such as WordPress.com, or content management systems, like Blogger, often offer free domain names for new users. Usually, beginners take this opportunity to create their websites before investing money into them.
A free web address often follows the same structure as subdomains. For example, instead of hostingertutorials.com, the domain would be hostingertutorials.wordpress.com or hostingertutorials.blogspot.com.
Keep in mind that getting a free domain often comes with minimal features and tools.
Getting a Domain Name
This section will explain how to register and transfer a domain name.
Domain registration is the process of purchasing a domain from a domain name registrar for a specific period. On the other hand, domain name transfer refers to the process of moving a domain from one registrar to another.
How to Register a Domain Name
Domain Name Checker
Instantly check domain name availability.
To find the right domain, consider branding and cost. Make sure that it is memorable, catchy, and fits your budget.
Popular domain names are often more expensive and might already be taken. Some generators provide options if the domain you want is unavailable. With a hosting service like Hostinger, users can choose a different top-level domain (TLD) with the same name or an alternative.
Once you have found a valid domain name, use a trustworthy registrar to buy the domain. To find the list of legitimate domain name registrars, check the ICANN database.
If you choose to use Hostinger’s domain registration services, follow these steps:
- Select your desired domain and continue to checkout.
- Choose the registration period for your domain. The domain privacy protection is included for free. It secures your personal information in the WHOIS database and prevents identity theft through the WHOIS lookup tool.
- Upon payment, access your new account.
- Complete the registration process by entering the required information, including your name and postal address.
After the domain registration is complete, you will have access to a control panel with all the essential management tools.
Looking for a more detailed guide? Check out our How to Buy a Domain Name? tutorial.
How to Transfer a Domain Name
Domain transfer is the process of changing a domain’s registrar. As domain registrars offer different support and maintenance, some users transfer their domains for better service.
With Hostinger, users can perform a domain transfer from any registrar.
All you have to do is enter the domain authorization code or EPP from your current provider and confirm the transfer. The process can take from 4 to 7 days.
Unfortunately, some extensions are not transferable. However, there is an option to point the nameservers to a particular hosting company if a registrar doesn’t accept certain TLDs. You will need to change your nameservers for this.
Note that changing the web server information can only be done from where you purchased the domain. However, if your registrar does not allow changing nameservers, it is still possible to point a domain to a different registrar using an A record.
Looking for a more detailed guide? Check out our How to point a domain to Hostinger?.
A domain name is a unique address used to access a website. Having a custom domain name has many advantages, such as improving memorability, branding, and SEO.
In this article, we explained how domain names work, their different types, and how to register and transfer a domain name.
We hope this article has given you a basic understanding of what is a domain name and how to incorporate them into your online business or project.
Learn More About Websites and Domains
What Is Web Hosting?
How to Make a Website From Scratch
URI vs URL: Differences and When to Use Them
How to Sell a Domain Name
I Bought a Domain Name, Now What?
Google Domain Review
What Is a Domain Name FAQ
Other than “what is a domain name?” we will answer some other frequently asked questions about domain names:
What Is the Difference Between a Domain and a Domain Name?
They are the same. “Domain” is often used as the shortened version of “domain name”.
What Is the Difference Between a Domain Name and a Website?
A domain name is the address of a website. It is what users enter into a browser to access it. On the other hand, a website is a collection of web pages made up of files under a single domain.
How Do I Check the Owner of a Domain Name?
You can check who owns a domain name by browsing ICANN Lookup. Simply enter the domain into the search bar to locate its contact information. Many domain owners hide their personal data for privacy reasons. If the contact information is masked, you can contact the registrar for more details.
How Can I Get a Free Domain Name?
Some web hosting providers, including Hostinger, offer free domain registration (yoursite.com) with their hosting plans. You could also get a free subdomain (yoursite.wordpress.com) by using a website builder or CMS, like WordPress.com or Blogger. You can also opt for a cheap domain.
Who Owns Unused Domain Names?
To find out the owners of domains that are registered but not used, look the domain up on ICANN Lookup or contact the domain registrar. If you want to find out which domains are unregistered and currently available for purchase, use our domain checker tool.