12 Web Design Principles to Follow When Designing Your Site in 2024

Creating a website that stands out requires more than just a good idea. It demands a strong understanding of basic web design principles. These principles are the cornerstone of crafting a website that not only looks great but also provides an exceptional user experience (UX).

This article unpacks these principles, offering practical advice on how to integrate them into your site to enhance functionality, aesthetic appeal, and overall performance.

Download Website Launch Checklist

12 Web Design Principles

Creating a website that’s functional and visually appealing depends on solid design principles and the use of the right tools. 

With Hostinger Website Builder, you can easily implement these design principles to create a professional and effective online presence, even if you’re new to web design.

1. Simplicity and Clarity

Simplicity in web design is about avoiding the unnecessary and focusing on the essential.

A clean site design, straightforward navigation, and easily digestible content allow visitors to find what they’re looking for quickly.

With its clean layout and intuitive navigation bar, Apple’s website is a testament to the power of simplicity.

Apple homepage

Stripe follows suit, using ample white space and clear directives to engage users.

Stripe homepage

Building a simple and clear website is easy with Hostinger Website Builder. Its clean templates and drag-and-drop interface help simplify the website’s design process.

Pro Tip

Determine your website’s layout using our guide on how to choose the right website layout.

2. Visual Hierarchy

Giving equal importance to every element results in a web page where nothing stands out.

The principle of visual hierarchy in web design focuses on arranging visual elements that naturally direct the viewer’s attention.

It’s about creating a focal point and guiding the user’s eye through the content in a logical, intuitive manner. This ensures that website visitors see the most important information first.

Let’s consider the impact of this principle with two examples.

Bad Example of Visual Hierarchy

Example of website design that does not apply hierarchy to visual elements

Here’s a website that ignores the visual hierarchy principle. We see a web layout without a clear focal point, where all the design elements are competing with each other for attention.

The lack of negative space, coupled with the use of similar font sizes and colors across different types of content – headings, subheadings, and body text – creates a sense of uniformity. This can cause confusion among the website visitors.

Additionally, the call-to-action button blends into the background without a distinct emphasis, potentially decreasing user engagement.

Good Example of Visual Hierarchy

Example of website design that applies hierarchy to visual elements

Let’s look at one of the Hostinger Website Builder templates, which are designed to follow the best visual hierarchy practices. 

The writer’s name is the dominant element on the page, immediately drawing attention and establishing identity. The title creative copywriter is positioned as a secondary focal point, providing clarity and supporting the main heading without competing with it.

The layout is thoughtfully organized, leading the website visitor through the introduction, followed by the portfolio showcase. The use of negative space around the text and images creates a clean look that enhances readability and UX design.

Finally, the My Projects button is a clear call to action that encourages engagement.

3. Mobile Responsiveness

With mobile users being more widespread, building mobile-friendly websites has become a top priority. Mobile-responsive design ensures your website adapts to different screen sizes, providing a seamless experience across devices.

The key is to adopt a mobile-first philosophy, which prioritizes the mobile experience with every design choice.

To implement the mobile responsive web design principle, a website designer can employ two key techniques:

Media Queries

Media queries are a CSS feature that enables your website to apply different styling rules based on the device’s screen size. This maintains your website’s functionality and aesthetics, whether it’s viewed on a small mobile device or a large desktop monitor.

Flexible Layouts

Flexible layouts use relative units like percentages instead of fixed units like pixels.

This approach allows your content to dynamically adjust and fit the screens of different mobile devices, ensuring a consistent and accessible user experience.

Hostinger Website Builder is built with mobile responsiveness in mind, helping users create websites that look great and work well on all devices without requiring technical expertise.

Hostinger Website Builder's mobile interface

4. Accessibility

Web accessibility refers to the practice of making websites more inclusive for people with disabilities. This essential principle ensures that everyone can access, understand, and navigate your website effectively.

Making your website accessible not only enhances user experience and SEO but also ensures legal compliance. More importantly, it shows your commitment to social responsibility and equal access.

True inclusivity can be achieved by implementing the ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) specification. It defines special markups that can be added to the HTML tags, helping assistive technologies like screen readers understand and interact with web content.

Here are some tips for implementing accessibility in website design:

  • Add descriptive alt text for images – this helps screen readers convey the content of images to visually impaired users.
  • Apply contrasting colors – choosing complementary colors for your web elements and their backgrounds can make your content more readable for users who are colorblind.
  • Keyboard navigation – ensure that your website can be navigated using a keyboard alone, catering to users who cannot use a mouse.
  • Deliver multimedia accessibility – offer transcripts for audio and captions for videos to make your multimedia content accessible to screen readers.
  • Offer clear website navigation – consistent and predictable navigation helps users with cognitive disabilities to understand and navigate your site.
  • Use accessibility checkers – test your website’s accessibility with tools like WAVE (Web Accessibility Evaluation Tool).
Homepage of website accessibility test tool, WAVE

5. Loading Speed

The loading speed of a website is a critical factor in UX design. Slow-loading web pages can lead to increased bounce rates, as users often lose patience and leave the site. Fast-loading websites improve user satisfaction, increase engagement, and are favored by search engines.

Image size, server response time, and efficient coding are some of the main factors that significantly impact website speed. Here are some tips for optimizing the site load time:

  • Optimize images – reduce image file sizes without sacrificing quality to lower the amount of data that needs to be loaded when a new user visits your site.
  • Minimize code – minify CSS, JavaScript, and HTML to remove unnecessary characters, comments, and whitespace.
  • Use efficient coding practices – optimize your code by using efficient algorithms and avoiding redundant or unnecessary scripts.
  • Leverage browser caching – store frequently accessed resources in the user’s browser to speed up subsequent page loads.
  • Optimize CSS and JavaScript loading – to improve load times, prioritize loading essential styles and scripts first over non-critical resources.
  • Choose a quality web host – choose a reliable web host that provides fast server response times, efficient data retrieval, and robust bandwidth to handle high traffic.

Hostinger’s hosting plans include features that help optimize website speed:

  • Solid-State Drives (SSD) – they enable faster data retrieval compared to traditional hard drives.
  • Optimized servers – Hostinger servers are optimized for content management systems like WordPress, ensuring faster loading times.
  • Free CDN – Hostinger’s CDN reduces the time a website takes to fetch resources, addressing user requests more efficiently.
  • Latest technologies – all our hosting plans leverage LiteSpeed web servers and object cache for rapid site loading.
  • Unlimited bandwidth – our plans do not limit the amount of visitors to your site, helping you accommodate high traffic volumes effortlessly.
  • Website speed test tools – Hostinger offers a suite of website speed test tools to simplify your site optimization efforts.
Hostinger website speed text tool

Usability tests are crucial for checking your site’s loading speed. Utilize tools like Google PageSpeed Insights, GTmetrix, and Pingdom to diagnose and optimize specific areas of your website that may be causing delays.

Suggested Reading

Learn more about website optimization and website performance with our guides.

6. User-Centered Design

User-Centered Design (UCD) places the user at the heart of the design process. This approach ensures a visually appealing and user-friendly product by prioritizing the needs, preferences, and limitations of the user.

An effective way to implement UCD is by developing user personas and usability testing.

User personas are fictional characters created based on your target audience. They help designers and developers understand the needs, goals, and behavior patterns of their users.

Meanwhile, usability testing is a website design practice that involves real users interacting with your website to identify usability issues. This direct feedback is important for making user-focused improvements.

Airbnb’s commitment to user experience, for instance, has played a pivotal role in its business growth. The company enhances its service and user interface according to customer feedback and behavior. This focus on user-centric web design has resulted in increased bookings and overall user satisfaction.

Airbnb homepage

Hostinger Website Builder’s intuitive design features can help you effectively apply UCD to your site. Our selection of pre-designed templates and customization options make it easy for you to adjust your website to meet specific user needs.

Suggested Reading

Ensure a successful website with our expert guides on
Basics of Building a Website
What Makes a Good Website
Web Design Best Practices

7. Content Quality

Publishing engaging, relevant, and SEO-friendly content can help attract and retain visitors, as well as establish your website as a credible source in your niche.

Complementing content with compelling visual design helps you deliver a better user experience. High-quality images, infographics, and videos can break up text into distinct sections. They can also help you illustrate points effectively and make complex topics more digestible.

Here are some effective content creation and curation tips:

  • Understand your audience – tailor your content to the interests, needs, and problems of your target audience.
  • Be consistent – maintain a consistent voice and style that reflects your brand’s personality.
  • Use SEO best practices – incorporate relevant keywords naturally to improve search engine visibility.
  • Quality over quantity – focus on creating valuable content rather than just churning out large quantities.
  • Update regularly – keep your content fresh and up-to-date to maintain relevance and engagement.
  • Visual balance – use high-quality visuals alongside your written content to give your viewers a balanced reading experience.
  • Engage and interact – encourage user interaction through comments, forums, or social media to build a community around your content.

8. Color Psychology

Understanding color psychology in a web design project is crucial for creating an effective and cohesive online presence. The color scheme of your website is more than just an aesthetic choice. It sets the tone of your brand identity and plays a pivotal role in how users interact with your site.

Business select their brand colors based on the emotions they want to evoke from their customers. For instance:

  • Blue – builds trust, security, and professionalism. Commonly used in corporate and financial websites.
  • Red – evokes excitement, passion, or urgency. Frequently used for call-to-action buttons or sale announcements.
  • Green – represents growth, harmony, and environmental consciousness. Ideal for health, wellness, and eco-friendly brands.
  • Yellow – conveys optimism and happiness. Used to grab attention or highlight important elements.
  • Purple – symbolizes luxury, creativity, and spirituality. Popular among beauty and wellness brands.

Understanding these associations can help you select a color palette that not only looks good but also aligns with the message and emotions you want to convey.

Here are some examples of brands using effective color psychology:

  • Dropbox – uses a soothing blue palette, reinforcing its message of secure and reliable cloud storage.
Dropbox homepage
  • Nike – often uses a combination of black, white, and red, portraying a sense of boldness and energy, fitting for a sports brand.
Nike homepage

Pro Tip

Pick your website’s color palette using our guide on the best website color schemes.

9. White Space and Breathing Room

White space, often referred to as negative space, is the unmarked area between design elements that creates an uncluttered look. It’s a crucial component of website design, playing a significant role in balancing and structuring pages.

Proper use of white space can significantly improve the readability and overall aesthetic appeal of a website. It allows the eyes to rest and helps guide users through the content in a more organized manner.

Here are some website design guidelines for the effective use of white space:

  • Strive for balance – too much white space might make the content feel disconnected, while too little can lead to a cluttered and overwhelming design.
  • Aim for uniformitydesign your website with consistency by evenly spacing margins and padding around elements and the space between lines of text.
  • Hierarchy – use white space to create a hierarchical viewing experience. More space around an element can signify its importance.
  • Breathing room – give elements room to breathe. This is especially important for key areas like navigation menus, headers, and call-to-action sections.
  • Account for different browser windows – ensure that your white space adapts well to different screen sizes to maintain a clean and accessible layout across devices.

10. Typography and Readability

It’s important to select readable fonts that reflect your website’s visual style. They should be aesthetically pleasing but still easy to read.

Here are some tips for selecting fonts and maintaining readability:

  • Choose web-safe fonts – widely supported fonts ensure consistency across browsers and devices. We recommend sans serif fonts like Arial or Helvetica for online content due to their clarity and simplicity.
  • Limit font varieties – using too many fonts can make your website look disjointed. Stick to a maximum of two or three fonts for a cohesive design.
  • Define font sizes – appropriate font sizes are crucial for readability. Small text can strain the eyes, while overtly large text can disrupt the flow of reading. When considering varying sizes for headings and body text, it’s important to find a balance.
  • Consider line length and spacing – the ideal line length for text is typically between 50-60 characters. Adequate line spacing – also known as leading – improves readability.
  • Mobile responsive typography – ensure that your typography adapts to different screen sizes. This usually involves adjusting font sizes and line spacing for mobile devices.
  • Hierarchy and emphasis – use different font weights and styles to create a hierarchy and draw attention to key sections of your content.

11. Interactive and Engaging Elements

Interactive elements can significantly improve user engagement, retention, and conversion rates when done right.

Key interactive features include buttons, forms, and micro-interactions:

  • Buttons – essential for guiding users towards desired actions, such as signing up or making a purchase. To be effective, buttons should stand out visually and be placed strategically.
  • Forms – crucial for gathering information. A well-designed website form should be simple, clear, and short.
  • Micro-interactions – subtle animations or changes – like changing the color of a button when a mouse hovers over it – add a dynamic layer to your site. These small visual responses can enhance the interactive experience.

Here are a couple of website examples that effectively use interactive elements:

  • Stripe – its website features interactive elements like animated backgrounds and dynamic graphics that respond to cursor movements, making the browsing experience more engaging.
Interactive elements on Stripe's landing page
  • Trello – Trello’s website showcases its product through interactive demonstrations. Users can click and drag information cards on a sample board to learn about the tool, making the interface both informative and engaging.
Interactive elements on Trello's homepage

12. Cross-Browser Compatibility

To reach a wider audience, your website must look and work as intended across various browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, and Safari.

However, different browsers interpret website code in their own ways, which can lead to variations in appearance and functionality. Ensuring consistency can be a challenge, especially with every new browser update.

Here are some tips for testing cross-browser compatibility:

  • Use testing tools – tools like BrowserStack or CrossBrowserTesting lets you check how your site performs on different browsers.
BrowserStack homepage
  • Implement regular updates – make sure your website code is up-to-date and tested on the latest browser versions.
  • Prioritize mobile responsiveness – your site must be able to adapt to various screen sizes and resolutions.

Hostinger Website Builder is designed with cross-browser compatibility in mind, so websites created using it work flawlessly across different browsers. This saves you the hassle of additional testing and tweaking, allowing you to focus on other aspects of your website.


This article highlights web design fundamentals that can transform your website into a functional, aesthetically pleasing, and engaging online presence.

For new website owners, we recommend starting with these website design principles:

  • Simplicity and clarity – aim for a straightforward design with user-friendly navigation. A clear and uncluttered layout helps visitors find what they need quickly and easily.
  • Mobile responsiveness – ensure your site adapts to all device screens, from desktops to smartphones.
  • Loading speed – optimize your site for fast loading times to keep visitors engaged and improve overall user experience.
  • Content quality – publish relevant, informative, and helpful content to capture visitor interest and establish your site’s credibility.

Implementing these web design principles is effortless with Hostinger’s Website Builder. Its intuitive interface and versatile templates make it simple to create a website that’s both functional and user-friendly.

Web Design Principles FAQ

Let’s address some common questions about website design principles.

What Are the Basic Principles of Web Design?

Some essential principles of website design include simplicity, mobile responsiveness, content quality, and visual hierarchy. These principles aim to create user-friendly websites that function well across devices and browsers, ensuring easy navigation and broad accessibility.

How Do I Apply Web Design Principles to My Website?

To apply web design principles, choose a clean layout, clear navigation, and ensure content accessibility on various screen sizes. Then, ensure the readability and visual appeal of elements through color and typography. Finally, continuously test and update your website based on performance data and user feedback.

The author

Akshay K.

Akshay is a Senior Content Writer who loves writing about technology. As a Computer Engineering graduate and a certified digital marketer, he aims to make tech easier for everyone. He also enjoys cooking, traveling, and learning new languages. Follow him on LinkedIn